Full text of “Vakyapadiya”. See other formats. STUDIES IN THE VAKYAPADlYA VOL I THE VAKYAPADlYA Critical Text of Cantos I and II [ with English. The Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari (5th c. CE), a treatise in three books (kāṇḍas) on the philosophy of language, belonging to the Pāṇinian school of grammar. Bhartrhari: Vakyapadiya Input by Yves Ramseier PLAIN TEXT VERSION. THIS GRETIL TEXT FILE IS FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES ONLY! COPYRIGHT AND .

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At another place, Bhartrhari remarks: Bhartrhari places the word-principle at the very core Bija of existence and as the one that gives form to the latent or un-manifest human thoughts and feelings. PashyantiMadhyama and Vaikhari.

Similarly, among the Buddhists, there were those who supported as also those who opposed the views of Bhartrhari. And, again, Gayatriherself, is said to manifest in three forms: Bhartrhari explains the relation between the Sphota and Nada through an analogy of reflection of the moon on the surface of water. Bhartrhari takes Sabda and Sphota are identical in nature. Here, Mahidasa further explains: Bhartrhari himself is credited with preparing a detailed explanatory note Vivarana or Vrtti or Tika on the first two Khandas Chapters of the Vakyapadiya.

Here he raises the question: Bhartrhari paid considerable attention to the whole sentence and the discussion of word-meaning rather than to constituents of a sentence. This explanation is similar to the one which modern science gives, for example, in the case of our seeing a star. To remove that difficulty we have the operation of the rule under discussion a ie I.


And, he argues, there could be no speech without consciousness. But, the true perception results by negating that error through a series of increasingly clearer perceptions Sphota — as in the case of elephant-tree analogy.

Each sound helps in gaining a better understanding of its next. And, Ila is sometimes mentioned as Ida.

The first deals with linguistic relationships from the point of view of everyday usage; and, the second with the same relationships from the point of view of ultimate reality.

Which means; an artist paints the picture in parts though he visualizes it as a single image. The opinions are divided between Bhartrihari and Vatsabhatti. In the later Vedic traditions, Vac is hailed as the very reflection of the greatness of the creator — vagva asya svo mahima SB. Discussions on Artha in Kavya- the Indian Poetics. Language is described as being at the apex of the Universe.


Although Bhartrhari lived in India many centuries ago, his writing has a universal appeal that spans the years and bridges the gulf between East and West.

According to Bhartrhari, the process of understanding the particular meaning of a word has three aspects: And his views are accepted and quoted by the later Vedanta Scholars of repute.

It vzkyapadiya something more sacred than ordinary speech; andcarries with it a far wider significance.

Vac identified with Sarasvathi. That does not mean that Bhartrhari does not assert his own position. In a way of speaking, they are the symbols of a symbolism.

Sanskrit Manuscripts : Vākyapadīya

Sources of Valid knowledge. That is to say; the perfect communication is when there is complete identity between sentence or word and its meaning. The alternate title of the Book is therefore Tri-Kandia book of three Cantos. These might be taken as signs of its existence; and act as vakyapadiy proof. In this context, Bhartrhari mentions, the role of Vyakarana Grammar is very important, as it helps to safeguard the correct transmission of the scriptural knowledge, and to assist the aspirant in realizing the truth of the revealed knowledge Sruti.


Time, like an eternal road, is the substratum on which the objects of the world come and go. But, Bhartrhari does not define the term precisely.

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Bhartrhari, in this Khanda, organizes and presents the issues in the form of cogent discussions. The word itself comprises letters or syllables varnas that follow one after the other in space and time. The more evolved the matter isvakyapaiya more manifest or recognizable or better defined it becomes. And, when it emerges as the spoken-word, it is the one that is heard and apprehended by the listener, in a flash of understanding Sphota.

As creative power, Time is responsible for birth, continuity and fading away of everything. In fact, Sphota is often identified with Pranava; and is taken as the imperishable Vakthe speech-principle Vak-tattva.