Un mecanismo de acción propuesto para los Doce pasos de Alcohólicos Anónimos. Luis A. Giuffra 1, a,b,c. 1 Washington University. St Louis, USA. a Professor. Los Doce Pasos De Alcohólicos Anónimos 1. Admitimos que éramos impotentes ante el alcohol, que nuestras vidas se habían vuelto ingobernables. 2. Marihuana Anónimo utiliza los Doce Pasos básicos de la. Recuperación establecidos por Alcohólicos Anónimos, porque se ha probado que el programa de.

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First, through steps 1 to 3, it encourages the use of a Surrogate Decision-Maker often, it is the AA group itself that acts as such. Bob has now an international presence with tens of thousands of groups anonomos meeting around the world. It is the frontal lobes that, in humans, may be able to logically and reasonably assess the natural consequences of using intoxicants.

There are about 30 million chemical compounds known to man, yet only about of them are intoxicants such as alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cocaine, hallucinogens, solvents, etc.

Studies consistently show that frontal lobe activity especially the prefrontal cortex is decreased among addicted individuals, and that hypofrontality persists long months or even a few years after the individual enters a state of abstinence. It has been criticized and misunderstood, yet voices against AA have failed to slow down its progress and success.

Throughout evolutionary history, animals have consistently found evolutionary success in repeating behaviors that cause dopamine surges in the reward system. I would like to propose a framework for how AA may accomplish this change.

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In the case of the Steps, however, there is no coherence between our understanding of how addiction affects the brain and why the Steps could help.

Knowing what passo does to the brain makes it easier to understand how the Steps might counteract these effects.

Teresi L, Haroutunian H. None survived the passage of time. Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all. Pearson Education, Inc; Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it.

Unfortunately, the frontal lobes are a primary target of the intoxicants, often rendering them too impaired to make a connection between the use of intoxicants and their negative consequences.


Un mecanismo de acción propuesto para los Doce pasos de Alcohólicos Anónimos

However, sincethe most successful self-help group in the history of alcohol treatment, Alcoholic Anonymous, AA continues to thrive and expand. Due to drug-induced hypofrontality, actively addicted individuals lack insight into their condition and its severity. Twelve steps programs have been the cornerstone of addiction treatment in the US for over 70 years. An interesting point can be added oasos step 11 which promotes prayer and meditation.

These pleasurable experiences are essential for the survival and evolution alcoholiccos the species. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc; Therefore, they benefit from having a trusted Surrogate Decision-Maker. Addicts are often unable to use logic and reason to work their way out of their addiction.

Members of this group are able to generate abuse and dependence among users. Nature has cleverly coupled the reward system with the survival of the individual and with evolutionary success. The Temperance Movement dates back to the s. Coherence between the steps and what we know about the neurobiology of the addicted brain can therefore be explained as follows: In a way, these maladaptive behaviors serve well the evolutionary goal to repeat what feels good.

Why does AA work?

Why might AA help reverse the intoxicant usurpation of the reward anonkmos and the resulting hypofrontality? The usurped reward system and the co-occurring hypoactive frontal lobes result in the development of maladaptive traits among addicts lying, cheating, deceiving, being selfish, etc.

Through different biochemical pathways, intoxicants alcoholicox a common final mechanism of action in the brain: Admitted to God, to ourselves, and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. Alcoholics have been gathering in self-help groups trying to achieve sobriety for over years. Can the human frontal lobes, then, counteract the urges of the reward system? What mechanisms of action drive their ability to generate abuse and dependence?

Pasoos is therefore essential for the denial and rationalization with which addicts justify their drug use, and helps us understand their lack of insight and immunity to the devastating consequences of drug use for themselves and their loved ones.


Humans, unlike other species, have very developed frontal lobes.

Repeated sexual activity feels good and, by engaging in intercourse, animals pass on their genes and promote the survival of the species. The second Step evolved into Steps 4 to 11, and the 3 rd Step remained unchanged in principle as the twelfth Step.

The Total Abstinence Society was founded in the s. The consistent widespread success of AA merits an in-depth look at the possible mechanism of action of its core proposal, the Twelve Steps.

Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings. Author House LLC; First, alcohol hijacks the reward systems of the midbrain in charge of detecting and experiencing pleasure through the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area with a pleasurable stimulation that far exceeds the normal pleasures of life such as eating and sexual reproduction.

This Behavioral Compensation is therefore a form of behavioral anonimow that disarms the reward system of the alxoholicos maladaptive behaviors necessary to promote the use of intoxicants. The chronic use of addictive drugs results on hypofrontality. Why we abuse drugs, alcohol and nicotine. We can easily understand why an antibiotic works when we treat bacterial pneumonia or why radiation therapy treats cancer. Throughout millions of years of evolution, animals have relied on their reward systems to recognize what feels good and to repeat it.

The reward system lacks the ability to naonimos and ponder aonimos danger of using intoxicants; it is simply determined to make the animal repeat pleasurable activities since this strategy has millions of years of established success.

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The author has no financial conflicts of interest to report. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives to the care of God as we understood him. Step 11 promotes increased blood flow to the frontal lobes and contributes to reversing drug-induced hypofrontality.